Category: Emerging Leaders

Screen Shot 2017-04-20 at 1.19.22 PMIn a previous LinkedIn post, we had discussed that as a culture, we are apparently not the only people duped by narcissistic leaders. “While narcissists may look like good leaders, according to a new study by University of Amsterdam, they’re actually really bad at leading”. As published in the journal of Psychological Science, “because narcissistic individuals are particularly skilled at radiating an image of a prototypically effective leader, they tend to emerge as leaders in group settings. But despite people’s positive perceptions of narcissists, when it comes to performance, narcissists actually inhibit information exchange between group members and thereby negatively affect group performance.”


In today’s blog considering the state of our nation in both business and political management, weScreen Shot 2017-04-20 at 1.19.37 PM want to add to that yet another of the dark triad traits; Machiavellianism “It is much safer to be feared than loved,” writes Niccolò Machiavelli in The Prince, his classic 16th-century treatise exemplifying manipulation and occasional cruelty as the best means to power. In the same spirit we have had many more recent business leaders, philosophers and believer alike within a 500 year span, such as Jack Welsh, whom in his Four type Model of Managers states: “Type 4 (the manger who delivers results but does not live by values espoused by the organization) is the toughest call of all: the manager who doesn’t share the values, but delivers the numbers. This type is the toughest to part with because organizations always want to deliver and to let someone go who gets the job done is yet another unnatural act. But we have to remove these Type 4s because they have the power, by themselves, to destroy the open, informal, trust-based culture we need to win today and tomorrow”.


Robert Greene’s national bestseller, The 48 Laws of Power, make Machiavelli’s’ ideas seem like child’s play. Greene’s book, is pure Machiavelli. Here are a few of his 48 laws:

Law 3, Conceal Your Intentions.

Law 6, Court Attention at All Costs.

Law 12, Use Selective Honesty and Generosity to Disarm Your Victims.

Law 15, Crush Your Enemy Totally.

Law 18, Keep Others in Suspended Terror.


Furthermore, a 2004 Harvard Business Review article by George Stalk Jr. and Rob Lachenauer states: “winners in business play rough and don’t apologize for it”. In fact, in their article titled Hardball: Five killer strategies for trouncing the competition, the authors make reference to three Organizations: Dell, Toyota and Walmart, clearly stating that the way they have achieved their success has not been “quite kosher”. However, nevertheless they stay on their course supporting their claim that in order to be the epitome of corporate success, organizations have to play “hardball” like the trio above.


Several decades ago, as a leader of our nation, Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy was famously to “speak softly and carry a big stick“. Which technically, refers to practicing strategy and diplomacy rather than showing your hand at all times. Today, Trump’s is “carry that big stick and be very loud’. Meaning, no need to beat around the bush, but rather be controversial and unaffected by criticism, get to the point, show them you mean business and win at all costs. Guided by centuries of Machiavellian advice like the above, many have come to believe that attainment of power requires force, deception, manipulation, and coercion. In fact, a larger percentage of our society assumes that positions of power demand this kind of conduct; that to run effectively, we need leaders who are willing and able to use power abusively.



Well, a new science of power would reveal that this is not further from the truth. In fact, the use of power is most effective, when it’s used responsibly. Individual(s) whom are accustomed to being connected and engaged with the needs and interests of others, are most trusted and hence most influential. The many years of research studying power and leadership suggests that empathy and Emotional Intelligence are vastly more important to the attainment and exercise of power than force, deception, or terror. This research debunks myths that misinform about what constitutes real power, and how it is really obtained and used.


So what is it about the position of power that becomes all about winning and not necessarily about achieving the greater good? Studies show that once people assume positions of power, they’re likely to act more selfishly, impulsively, and aggressively, and they have a harder time seeing the world from other people’s points of view. For instance, studies have found that people given power in experiments are more likely to rely on stereotypes when judging others, and they pay less attention to the characteristics that define those other people as individuals. Predisposed to stereotype, they also judge others’ attitudes, interests, and needs less accurately. One survey found that high-power professors made less accurate judgments about the attitudes of low-power professors than those low-power professors made about the attitudes of their more powerful colleagues. Power imbalances may even help explain the finding that older siblings don’t perform as well as their younger siblings on theory-of-mind tasks, which assess one’s ability to construe the intentions and beliefs of others.

Power even prompts less complex legal reasoning in Supreme Court justices. A study led by Stanford psychologist Deborah Gruenfeld compared the decisions of U.S. Supreme Court justices when they wrote opinions endorsing either the position of a majority of justices on the bench—a position of power—or the position of the vanquished, less powerful minority. Sure enough, when Gruenfeld analyzed the complexity of justices’ opinions on a vast array of cases, she found that justices writing from a position of power crafted less complex arguments than those writing from a low-power position.


Hence, it seems, the skills most important to obtaining power and leading effectively are the very skills that deteriorate once we have power. In order to answer the question above, we must first clarify the definition of power. I particularly like the way power is defined in the science of psychology because it applies across relationships, contexts, and cultures. In psychological science, power is defined as one’s capacity to alter another person’s condition or state of mind by providing or withholding resources—such as food, money, knowledge, and affection—or administering punishments, such as physical harm, job termination, or social ostracism. This definition de-emphasizes how a person actually acts, and instead stresses the individual’s capacity to affect others.


This brings us to the third trait of the Dark Triad, psychopathy. There is a wealth of evidence, which clearly demonstrates that having power makes people more likely to act like sociopaths. High-power individuals are more likely to interrupt others, to speak out of turn, or to avoid looking at others who are speaking. They are also more likely to tease friends and colleagues in a hostile and humiliating fashion. Surveys of organizations find that some typical rude behavior such as shouting, using profanities, or shaming type of criticism are most often acts of individuals in positions of power.

Research by Dacher Keltner has found that many individuals with power tend to behave like patients with damaged orbitofrontal lobes (the region of the brain’s frontal lobes behind the eye sockets); A neurological condition causing overly impulsive and insensitive behavior. Psychopaths display lack of empathy and socially inappropriate behavior in addition to harmful forms of aggression.


When separated into traits as we have done here, the use of power as we have demonstrated here, doesn’t look that appealing. However, in society, we have had many examples of “powerful” people with the ENTJ personality type known as “the commander” who have been very “successful” at what they were tasked to do because they had a strong following of believers; Joseph Stalin, Adolph Hitler, Jeffery Dahmer, Winston Churchill, Jack Welsh, Steve Jobs, Martha Stewart. But why are these personality types, which may normally look appalling given power? We believe the answer lies in the fact that as humans we are attracted to controversy or radicalism even if it’s not good for us. The most “influential” leaders as mentioned above, armed with their manipulation, thirst for power, and lack of empathy, are often found reinforcing ideals for mockery and anger during times of mass weakness and despair. Only this type of leader is able to fulfill a tribe’s hunger for power because they bring with them a false sense of security. This serves a symbiotic relationship for the leader as well because the surrender of power by the followers, feeds the narcissism, machiavillianism and psychopathy of the leader that much more. It serves as a cyclical infinite process.

Although as humans we naturally strive for power, those with the above traits thirst for it in an insatiable way and if the environment calls for it, they are in the most desirable habitat to become more and more powerful. In the famed Stanford Prison Experiment, psychologist Philip Zimbardo randomly assigned Stanford undergraduates to act as prison guards or prisoners—an extreme kind of power relation. The prison guards quickly descended into the purest forms of power abuse, psychologically torturing their peers, the prisoners. Similarly, anthropologists have found that cultures where rape is prevalent and accepted tend to be cultures with deeply entrenched beliefs in the supremacy of men over women.

So when Jack Welsh was typifying his managers, he wasn’t necessarily referring to their work ethics but rather to their personality types. In a recent study on representative German businesses, narcissism was positively linked to salary, while Machiavellianism was positively linked to leadership level and career satisfaction. These associations were still significant even after controlling for the effects of demographics, job tenure, organization size, and hours worked.

Previously, an impressive 15-year longitudinal study found that individuals with psychopathic and narcissistic characteristics gravitated towards the top of the organizational hierarchy and had higher levels of financial attainment. In line with those findings, according to some estimates, the base rate for clinical levels of psychopathy is three times higher among corporate boards than in the overall population. This is also consistent with earlier conceptualizations of psychopathy among businessmen.



Instead of succumbing to the Machiavellian worldview—which unfortunately leads us to select Machiavellian leaders—we must promote a different model of power, one rooted in social intelligence, responsibility, and cooperation.


“Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely,” said the British historian Lord Acton. Based on what we know now, this is not entirely a myth. Power encourages individuals to act on their own whims, desires, and impulses. But thankfully new scholarship is bringing fresh subtlety to psychologists’ understanding, clarifying that power doesn’t have to corrupt everyone because it doesn’t affect everyone the same way. In fact, for some people, power seems to bring out their best. In a study recently published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, DeCelles and her co-authors found people’s sense of “moral identity”, the degree to which they thought it was important to their sense of self to be “caring,” “compassionate,” “fair,” “generous” shaped their exercise and response to power. Among the 195 subjects, while primed to think of themselves as powerful, the people with low moral-identity scores grabbed 7.5 points—and those with high moral-identity scores took only about 5.5. In other words, with the high moral identity group, power led them to take a broader, more communally centered perspective.


Another experiment involving adults found a similar relationship between moral identity, ethical behavior and innate aggressiveness. Assertive people who scored low on the moral-identity scale were more likely to say they’d cheated their employer in the past week than more passive types with similar moral-identity scores. But among those with high moral-identity scores, the assertive people were less likely to have cheated. In sum, the study found, power doesn’t corrupt; it heightens pre-existing ethical values.


So, in practicing power and surrendering it, it is imperative that we are ever vigilant against the corruptive influences of power and it’s ability to distort our views of humility and treatment of others. The goals is also remain critical in challenge myths about power, which persuade us to choose the wrong kinds of leaders and to tolerate gross abuses of power.

Abraham Lincoln once said, “Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power.” Would you say that Trump’s proclamation Patriotic Day of Devotion, which was made official on Monday, and previously uttered by Kim Jong-un in speeches to his 1.2 million-strong military and members of the ruling Korean Workers’ party echoes those of Dark Triad Leaders prior?


images-4We know that using a one-size-fits-all approach will not create the kind of buy-in needed to get the total organization working together.  In addition we know that to be competitive, the offer has to be branded consistently but also to fit a need.  


So what separates between the need to standardize vs. the need to customize?  

Research conducted by Jaynie L. Smith for the book Creating Competitive Advantage, states that only two CEOs out of 1,000 surveyed could clearly define their company’s competitive advantage.  A new wave in customization is the use of data analytics. Where it would take years and years of research to create and market the next generation of a service or product, can now be obtained within a few seconds. Case in point, car manufacturers are gathering more data than ever to eliminate waste and improve efficiency as they try to create next-generation vehicles. In 2012, Mercedes-AMG began to deploy an in-memory platform across business functions to analyze large amounts of data in real time. The goal for Mercedes-AMG was not to quickly deliver data, it was to deliver information that can improve processes that lead to competitive advantage.

Another example is that of content advertising. Today, more people than ever are watching digital video on hand-held devices and laptops, meaning that each viewer can customize what they watch, and when. The amount of user-generated content has also exploded, fragmenting viewers among many markets and making it tricky at best for brand advertisers to get the biggest bang for their buck. This shift in viewer habits has caused huge disruptions to the traditional advertising model.

For many people, real luxury is about ordering bespoke items with heaps of customization. These are made either entirely for them or simply not available to anyone else because they are completely unique creations. In times of computer controlled production real craftsmanship has gone lost. The McDonalds of the world are now far and between.  Starbucksimages-3 is the McDonnalds of today.  Perfecting that Latte to the dot within a few minutes with a mass customization approach of adding the hazelnut, soy, or skim details.  Because of the downturn in the economy even with a limited budget, people are no longer willing to settle.  Whether using professional services, or products such as, food, luxury goods, travel or any other, there is virtually no competition, and size doesn’t matter if you are able to offer a product/service that is needed, and unique. The global economy calls for customization and only customization and only organizations that are able to deliver customization with a mass formula can do well.

Business leaders should not become overwhelmed by the amount of data. The key is to identity important information and gain insight to improve business operations. Finding your brand, defining it to the core, and delivering it uniquely to your unique customer is the overall value proposition.  Is it a coincidence that the word Customer is a derivative of the word Customization?


You are probbaly wondering what does Ebola have to do with your career, other than the fact that god forbid you somehow contracted the illness and had to be in quarentine, etc. etc. 

No, that is not where we are going with this.  Although the Ebola virus in our eyes as human being and victims of the disease is a deadly virus and it reality it is a very smart and calculated being.  Here is what we already know about the Ebola Virus:

1.  It knows it’s purpose and has done it successfully and consistently since the 70’s

2.  It thrives hosted within a familiar and trusted environment

3.  It is a national and  international sensation and it knows it

4.  It knows how to blend in and when to flare up

4.  It has great longevity (referring to its ability to sustain itself)

5.  It has has upward mobility (currently being the biggest epidemic in history)

Again what does this have to do with your career?  As a practicing industrial/organizational psychologist, a coach and a trusted advisor, I have had the pleasure of working with so many professionals and one of the chief complaints I have heard regardless of status, number of years of experience, education, or pay has been “I don’t know where my career is headed”.  Beyond the obvious human condition of not having a crystal ball and not being to unfortunately foretell the future, the truth of the matter is that you have more power and control over your career than you may think or willing to admit to.  Well, what if you considered your ambitions the Ebola Virus?  Not in a negative way, so this exercise takes a bit of reframing your original mind frame.  Rather, viewing your career goals as a push forward, “nay” resistant, calculated, has a life of its own creature?  Now look at the 5 items above and read them from the perspective of your job and career.

There is a “science” to herding your career and advancing your goals in the work arena.  It is true that with the world of globalization, technology and unprecedented layoffs, predictability is definitely not what it used to be.  However, risk management applies to money management and finances 10, 20, or even 30 years down the line, so why can’t your career follow suite?  But it can.  Between emotional intelligence, careful and planned training, and network building we have got you covered.  We counsel career professionals, executives and the c-suite on these matters daily, so take a comfortable seat and lend and ear.

1) Find a familiar host and/or trusted environment

It’s true. It’s who you know, not what you have accomplished. Many people do not want to believe this simple but unspoken rule about life and work because it means the hardest working, most creative, most dedicated people are not necessarily going to get the next promotion.

This means that unless you have  a good relationship with key people directly or at least indirectly,  you will not get ahead no matter how hard you work, no matter what your accomplishments are.

The person who will get the next big promotion or the next big job opportunity will be someone who knows the boss better than you do, someone who has more face time with the boss, and someone who the boss has better chemistry with.

People climb up the ladder and/or get recognized because the boss feels they can be trusted to do the job, to follow thoroughly, and to be a loyal supporter. You may be all of these, but unless you can communicate that clearly, no one will know.  Prior accomplishments are often not the main consideration.  I have often coached individuals who feel discouraged that they are getting passed on opportunities.  After further inquiry I have almost always gotten to know that there is always a counter part who gets recognition after recognition, and promotion after promotion.  When I inquire why they believe the other individual keeps getting ahead, their response is “I don’t know, to me it seems that all the person does is a lot of talking”.  My response “thank you, I am  Sure they are very articulate and very well spoken, but comparing their track record to you, you don’t see all the hoopla?  The trust upper management places on an individual is usually not necessarily correlational to the numbers.  Given today’s economical conditions, that is usually a requirement rather than a plus.  Upper management puts trust on the individual who toots the company’s horn, their team’s horn, and supports the boss’s agenda whether through an added skill(more on this below), or presentation, etc.

2) Be a national and an international sensation and know your worth

On the opposite side, I have worked with individuals who are constantly looking for the next opportunity and pushing the bar against their own self  What’s their secret? When I observed these individuals closely, I often notice that they never pass up an opportunity to market themselves. Yet they do it so subtlety, that most people either don’t notice, or are not turned off or annoyed by it.

Whenever there was a large meeting with both peers and superiors, this person would find a way to get everyone’s attention. Then, while discussing the current topic she would ever so slightly mention something what she and her team had just accomplished. However small, she would somehow show a connection between that accomplishment,  and the topic at hand.  In this way, every accomplishment was highlighted to management.

For further examples you may refer to the book How to Guerrilla Market Yourself and Get What You Deserve by Jay Levinson and Seth Godin. Once you get used to doing this, it becomes so natural and almost subliminal in it’s effect.

So the tip here is to make sure upper management, other branches, or locations know what your contributions and accomplishments are, and do it in a subtle way if possible.  Don’t rely on your boss to broadcast this, Be your Own Messanger.

3) Know your purpose and stick to it

If you have read any of the material on this web site you know by now how important it is to do the work you were cut out to do. It’s hard to be passionate and committed to doing work that does not utilize your natural talents and your personal competitive advantage. Spend 15 to 20 minutes everyday and take an inventory of your passions and talents and see which ones you are constantly nurturing.  A part of our Career Planning Program is the discover y of “what types of work you were truly meant to do”.

4) Know when to blend in and when to “flare up”

Disagreeing with upper management or anyone for a matter of fact in front of other people is simply not smart. Dale Carnegie in his book How to Win Friends clearly states that “no one likes criticism”.  No matter how close you and the other individual are and how right you think you are, never disagree with them in public, even if they invite you to. Instead, learn to become a valuable advisor and yes to the boss especially. Here’s how…

If you disagree with the boss, wait until you two have a private moment and then explain your viewpoint. Then, at the end say “Thanks for listening to me. I really appreciate the opportunity to be heard. You are the boss, and I am a loyal soldier so I will do it your way. “

Why? Even the most confident boss will have doubts about himself. So while he / she does not need you undermining his/her credibility, there is an underlying achiever there that will appreciate “Constructive criticism”. Bosses want to see that everyone is in alignment and following them. So doing any  dissension is really a disservice to them but ultimately to your career.

If you really want to get ahead, anticipate future issues and possible disagreements and discuss them in private, ahead of time. In this way you become a trusted advisor to the boss. This will build trust and demonstrate loyalty.

I once had an employee who used this skill with me many times. He would come into my office and say something like this: “There is going to be a meeting later today and I expect this issue to come up. I just want to give you a heads up. Here is my perspective… and here is the opposing view…”

Eventually I learned to trust this person and I felt we made a great team. I would frequently seek out his opinion before making critical decisions. So I know first hand that this process does work.

5) Create upward mobility by filling a Gap In a Skill Set

Through observation, research and record keeping you can connect dots in others behaviors and learn how to connect with them .  One of the facets of Emotional Intelligence, and also the best way to get close to key people in the organization  and to make yourself truly valuable. If done well, this will truly benefit the organization.

All of us have Achilles, some that we recognize and others we might not be aware of. The key is to understand the strengths and challenges of those around us  and see if we can somehow fill the gap.  I observed this in one organization where the boss was not very strategic, and his position did require that he provide direction and vision to the organization. One astute direct report figured this out and made a point of regularly communicating with the boss and coming to him with strategic ideas, vision and direction. The executive adopted many of these ideas and they became his own and that of the entire organization.

Once you have fulfilled  a need missing within a superior and it is noticed, you are branded in their mind, and even the organization if you go about it smartly.  That goes beyond all other hard skills you possess.

To understand the strengths and weaknesses of yourself and others, all you need to do is pay attention and observe patterns.


 Many of the viruses and diseases of our past have been eradicated by measurement.  To eradicate the Ebola virus as well, careful assessment of its patterns of behavior will be key.  Through measurement, we will establish a pattern of behavior, and condition the infection to fall on its face.



Recognizing Leadership Style:

Welcome to the Emerging Leaders Blog series. Center for Work Life put on thinking caps to determine a method for reaching out and assisting leaders in the local Orlando community. The Emerging Leaders blog series based on the SPM (Spony Profiling Model) is the result. Not only has this series assisted notable female professionals who have participated, but these posts are also designed to help readers assess their own style. Each blog post reveals a leadership style, discusses that style’s characteristics and features a local leader who embodies the style.

Based on the SPM (Spony Profiling Model), created by Dr. Gilles Spony, at Cranfield School of Management, Presentation Trainer Marion Chapsal, developed a model of 12 leadership styles. The purpose of determining one’s fit in the model is to understand their strengths and learn from a mentor with the opposite leadership style.


The Achiever Leadership Style:

According to Chapsal, Achievers bring to their organizations a determination to achieve and an effective, focused and fast-paced working style. Sensitive to concrete results, Achievers are more comfortable with concise and factual information rather than too much detail. Thought they can sometimes become blunt and impatient under stress, they are assertive, direct and get the job done. CEO of Xerox, Ursula Burns, embodies this style.

Once a leader understands their style, leaders then understand an ideal sponsor for them would be someone with the opposite style. Facilitators are the opposite of Achievers. Facilitators are viewed as friendly. They spend time seeking agreement and consensus. Though good at listening, they are sometimes considered to lack effectiveness or become too dependent on other people’s opinions. They communicate with enthusiasm, show empathy, maintain eye contact, are expressive, and are understanding. Under stress, they can become emotional and irrational. Seeking a sponsor of the opposing leadership style will enable an individual to learn from a different style and improve on their own weaknesses, while still growing in their strengths.

Words from an Achiever:

Within the Orlando community, Center of Work Life identified Bank of America Assistant Vice President and Associate Small Business Banker, Alexandra DiCaro, to have an Achiever Leadership Style. Alexandra has been working with businesses in the Central Florida area since 2004 and joined Bank of America in 2012. Alexandra is a member of the West Orange Chamber of Commerce and enjoys the beach, music, movies, reading and family time. When asked about leadership, she replied “My definition of leadership it to provide ethical guidance to bring about a positive change. To take charge and ensure a successful conclusion.”


Alex DiCaro
Assistant Vice President Small Business Banker
Bank of America

As someone with an Achiever leadership style, what goes on in Alexandra’s mind on a day-to-day basis? Alexandra explained “I pride myself on the fact that I can exceed at whatever I try. I learned a long time ago that success is a choice. If I work hard, and I mean put the time and effort in, I will get the results.” As a leader she says “I work hard to empower everyone. Teach them, allow them to contribute and celebrate our group success. I am also honest with everyone. I provide honest feedback that I feel people need to grow. I remember something I once read, ‘Those whom care, tell you the things you don’t want to hear.’”

She added concerning success and leadership “I set goals for myself. Every day I try something new and when I reach my goal, I raise the mark. I think you can never truly be successful if you don’t reset your goals higher and higher. I also am very open to feedback and coaching. I know that no matter how good I am I can get better. If I miss my goal today, I work twice as hard to get it by tomorrow. Goals change, it’s the nature of what we do. We hit a goal and raise the bar each time. Think of an athlete whom constantly focuses on beating their own record to get better and better. I feel you have to love doing what you do and keep pushing to do it better and better.”

Leaders like Alexandra make a big difference everyday and it takes all types of leaders to make the business world function. Achievers need facilitators, innovators need analysts and so on. Congratulations to Alexandra and all the achievers our there for their hard earned accomplishments. Never stop investing in your personal development as a leader and look for mentors who can facilitate growth. In Alexandra’s words “Work hard, stay ethical and enjoy doing what you do!”


Related Reads:
Emerging Leaders Introduction
Emerging Leaders: The Facilitator, Cori Powers
Emerging Leaders: The Pioneer, Karla Head
Emerging Leaders: The Moderator, Sandi Vidal
Emerging Leaders: The Persuader, Andria Herr
Emerging Leaders: Official Leadership Style Guide
Mark Zuckerberg’s Leadership Qualities



This Blog has been featured by the West Orange Chamber of Commerce. Sources such as HLN have also been home to publications by Dr. Farnaz Namin-Hedayati and she has been cited by the Orlando Business Journal. 

Center for Work Life of Orlando, Florida is an award-winning executive development firm providing leadership and management training to executives and organizations. Our main services include executive coachingleadership developmentexecutive succession planningemotional intelligence trainingcareer planningstaff development, and communication in the workplace.

Management Monday: Managing Your Leadership Style

Welcome to the Emerging Leaders Blog series. Center for Work Life put on thinking caps to determine a method for reaching out and assisting leaders in the local Orlando community. The Emerging Leaders blog series based on the Spony Profiling Model (SPM) was the result. Not only did the series assist notable female professionals who have participated, but the posts have helped readers assess their own style and leadership qualities. Each blog post revealed a leadership style, discussed that style’s characteristics and featured a local leader who embodies the style.

The Emerging Leaders blog series has been a wonderful opportunity for leaders to grow and sometimes connect. It’s been revealing of leadership dynamics that are lesser known in the business world. This Emerging Leaders post is designed to begin wrapping up this blog event and fill in the holes on any remaining questions for leaders who are trying to better understand their leadership style.


Leadership Styles Chart:

Based on the SPM (Spony Profiling Model), created by Dr. Gilles Spony, at Cranfield School of Management, Presentation Trainer Marion Chapsal, developed a model of 12 leadership styles. The purpose of determining one’s fit in the model is to understand their strengths and learn from a mentor with the opposite leadership style.



Leadership Styles Explained:

By self-evaluating qualities, one can determine their leadership style based on the explanations below. This explanation will also help leaders determine the opposite leadership style to their own, which will help them know what qualities to look for in a mentor.

Which style describes you?


According to Chapsal, Achiev­ers bring to their organizations a deter­mi­na­tion to achieve and an effec­tive, focused and fast-paced work­ing style. Sen­si­tive to con­crete results, Achiev­ers are more com­fort­able with con­cise and fac­tual infor­ma­tion rather than too much detail. Assertive and direct, they can become blunt and impa­tient under stress. Assistant Vice President at Bank of America in Orlando, Alex DiCaro and CEO of Xerox, Ursula Burns, embody this style. Facil­i­ta­tors are the opposite of Achievers.

The Analyzer stresses the require­ment, before mak­ing deci­sions, to gather exter­nal infor­ma­tion com­ing from the outer world as opposed to the inner world. The social value is about pro­tect­ing the group from any sub­jec­tive or irra­tional per­spec­tives and avoid­ing any bias involv­ing per­sonal inter­pre­ta­tion. This vision implies the gath­er­ing of objec­tive and com­pre­hen­sive infor­ma­tion, and a cool minded approach to prob­lem solving (SPM Profile). Chief Executive Officer of Gulf One Investment Bank, Nahed Taher, largely embodies the Analyzer style. Dr. Nahed Taher was one of just four Arab women to be recognized by Forbes in its list of the 100 most influ­en­tial women in the world in 2006. Innovators are the opposite of Analyzers.

Drivers value effort, power, status, determination, rewards, success, recognition, authority and hierarchy. According to Chapsal, French Businesswoman and CEO of Areva, Anne Lauvergeon, largely embodies the Driver style. Once a leader understands their style, they now also understand an ideal sponsor for them would be someone with the opposite style. Humanists are the opposite of Drivers.

Chapsal highlights three main values of the Facilitator: team spirit, simplicity and loyalty. Similar to famous sports teams like the Golden State Warriors, they value and empower each member of the group. More important values for Facilitators include diversity, ethics, equality, belonging, inclusion, respect and peace. Cori Powers, Marketing Director at The Health Law Firm and Indra Nooyi, Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo, both largely embody the Facilitator style. Achievers are the opposite of Facilitators.

According to Chapsal, Humanists are friendly, relaxed, non-aggressive, excellent at understanding others, good at cross-cultural experiences, open-minded, respectful, supportive and trusting. Andrea Jung, Canadian-American Executive, embodies this style. Once a leader understands their style, they now also understand an ideal sponsor for them would be someone with the opposite style. Drivers are the opposite of Humanists.

Innovators typically value optimism, trust and sharing. They are known for seeking new possibilities, solutions and collaborations. Char­lene Li, founder of Altimeter group, embodies this style, according to Chapsal. Analyzers are the opposite of Innovators.

Obe­di­ent, watchful, cau­tious, loyal and mod­est are often qualities of Maintainers. They value stability, sincerity, morals and traditions. According to Chapsal, Hyundai Group Chairwoman, Hyun Jeong-Eun, largely embodies the Maintainer style. Pioneers are the opposite of Maintainers.

Moderators are viewed as diplo­matic, sen­si­tive, modest, fam­ily-oriented and they express themselves in a sup­port­ive and warm way. According to Chapsal, Spanish Businesswoman, Ana Patricia Botín, largely embodies the Moderator style. Sandi Vidal, the Executive Director of Christian HELP and the Central Florida Employment Council also has a Moderator leadership style. Persuaders are the opposite of Moderators.

Mon­i­tors value dis­ci­pline, which includes self-discipline as well as group dis­ci­pline. They love to be in con­trol, are hard-working, task focused, per­se­ver­ing and metic­u­lous (SPM Model). Dong Mingzhu is a Chinese Businesswoman and President of Gree Electric. According to Chapsal, she largely embodies the Monitor style. Once a leader understands their style, they now also understand an ideal sponsor for them would be someone with the opposite style. Networkers are the opposite of Monitors.

According to the SPM, Net­work­ers have a strong per­sonal drive for social inter­ac­tion under­pinned by the need to attract oth­ers and enjoy the plea­sure of new encoun­ters. Their fun lov­ing atti­tude is dri­ven by the belief that the organization will only sur­vive and pros­per if it builds strong inter­nal and exter­nal net­works. Arianna Huffington, Greek-American Author and Oprah Winfrey, embody this style, according to Chapsal. Monitors are the opposite of Networkers.

According to Chapsal, Per­suaders have a strong per­sonal drive to lead and guide oth­ers. They often have a solid abil­ity to con­vince oth­ers through a vari­ety of com­mu­ni­ca­tion skills, which can include com­mu­ni­cat­ing with a large audi­ence, assertive­ness and under­stand­ing the moti­va­tional dri­ves of others. Their Ver­bal and non-verbal com­mu­ni­ca­tion is clear, with a direct but well-structured argu­ment and free flow­ing body move­ments. Typically they are vocally force­ful with­out rais­ing their voice. Additional qualities include excel­lent at express­ing ideas, assertive, self con­fi­dent, deci­sive, com­pet­i­tive and autonomous. President of Hylant, Andria Herr and American Business Executive, Meg Whitman, embody this style. Moderators are the opposite of Persuaders.

“Enthu­si­as­tic, expres­sive, bold, risk-taker, not dis­cour­aged by fail­ures, dar­ing, inde­pen­dent, ambi­tious. They do not hes­i­tate to change their minds to adopt a new course of action. Full of con­fi­dence, brim­ming with energy, Pio­neers bring to their organization a capac­ity to ini­ti­ate change and an abil­ity to deal with the unex­pected” (Spony Pro­fil­ing Model Feed­back Guide). Body Bi Vi Promoter, Karla Head, CEO of Tempstaff, Yoshiko Shi­no­hara, Natalie Turner, Founder and CEO of Entheo, Gail Evans, author of Play like a Man, Win like a Woman, and Halla Tomas­dot­tir, CEO of Audur Cap­i­tal in Ice­land, embody this style. Maintainers are the opposite of Pioneers.


Leadership Style Diagram:

The diagram below depicts even further analysis of the leadership styles. Notice that the innovator falls into the individual dynamics, where their thinking is more independent and task focused, where as the analyzer falls toward the group dynamics and thinks more in terms or relationships. By contrast, the achiever acts quickly to gain recognition on the self-enhancement side of the diagram while the facilitator takes action but their thinking is often geared toward consideration for others.


To better illustrate the concept of finding an opposite style mentor or mentee, let’s think about the achiever and the facilitator with the diagram in mind. One has an internal drive to be recognized by others while the other has an internal drive to take care of and recognize others. Both are action oriented. Putting them together will help each find a middle ground, while still maintaining their strengths. Together they form a fierce duo for getting the job done.

Background, education and title aren’t indicative of leaders; just look at college drop-out Bill Gates who didn’t earn a degree until long after the success of Microsoft. It is the internal motivators to make a difference in other people’s lives, and the continual effort to grow on the way that marks a leader. In fact, many have said that being a leader isn’t about reaching goals, it’s about helping others reach their goals.

As we near the conclusion of the Emerging Leaders blog series, Center for Work Life hopes to encourage all leaders to go forth and make great things happen. We also want to once again thank all participants and readers of the Emerging Leaders blog series.

Remember to return for the final Emerging Leaders guest feature on Wednesday, April, 30th 2014.


Emerging Leaders Blog Series Schedule:

March 13th = Emerging Leaders Introduction
April 2nd = Emerging Leaders: The Facilitator, Cori Powers
April 9th = Emerging Leaders: The Moderator, Sandi Vidal
April 16th = Emerging Leaders: The Pioneer, Karla Head
April 23rd = Emerging Leaders: The Persuader, Andria Herr 
April 30th = Emerging Leaders: The Achiever, Alex DiCaro



This Blog has been featured by the West Orange Chamber of Commerce. Sources such as HLN have also been home to publications by Dr. Farnaz Namin-Hedayati and she has been cited by the Orlando Business Journal

Center for Work Life of Orlando, Florida is an award-winning executive development firm providing leadership and management training to executives and organizations. Our main services include executive coachingleadership developmentexecutive succession planningemotional intelligence trainingcareer planningstaff development, and communication in the workplace.


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